Describe the distribution of oceans and ocean currents. Describe the main features of oceanic crust and ocean floor morphology. Explain the occurrence of oceanic volcanic features, trenches, transform faults, mid-ocean ridges and rifts in terms of plate margins. (1 Hour)
Describe the horizontal and vertical spatial variations in the temperature and salinity of ocean water. Explain the thermal transfers of energy within oceans and the importance of oceanic conveyor belts (1 Hour)
Explain the atmosphere–oceanic interactions associated with ENSO. Explain the El Niño and La Niña phenomena and their climatic, environmental and economic effect. Examine the role of oceans as a store and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) (4 Hours)
Identify the biotic and abiotic resources of continental shelves, oceans and ocean floor deposits. Examine the spatial and temporal consequences of overfishing. Evaluate a case study of a conservation policy implemented to provide sustainable fish yields.
Examine the relationship between coastal processes (tides, wave action, littoral drift, wind action) lithology, subaerial processes and different coastal landforms. Identify the major landforms of beaches, dunes and cliffs along advancing and retreating coasts
iscuss the conflicts that arise from competing land uses and from attempts to manage coastal hazards (tsunamis and storm surges, erosion, cliff failure), pollution, habitat restoration and aquaculture.
Describe the conflicting pressures on a particular coastline.
Discuss the management strategies adopted to resolve these pressures and evaluate their effectiveness.
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